Phylogeny of the genera of the parasitic wasps subfamily Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) based on morphological evidence.

Publication Type:Journal Article
Year of Publication:2004
Authors:S. A. Belokobylskij, Zaldivar-Riveron, A., Quicke, D. L. J.
Journal:Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society
Keywords:classification, consistency index, data decisiveness, insect, retention index, systematics

The evolutionary relationships among most (143 genera) of the currently recognized genera of the braconid wasp subfamily Doryctinae were investigated using maximum parsimony analysis, employing 100 characters from external morphology and four additional, less well-studied character systems (male genitalia, ovipositor structure, venom apparatus and larval cephalic structure). We investigated the ‘performance’ of characters from external morphology and the other character systems and the effects of abundant missing entries by comparing the data decisiveness, retention and consistency indices of four different character partitions. The results indicate that the performances of the different partitions are not related to the proportions of missing entries, but instead are negatively correlated to their proportion of informative characters, suggesting that the morphological information in this group is subject to high levels of homoplasy. The external morphological partition is significantly incongruent with respect to a data set comprising the other character systems based on the ILD test. Analyses supported neither the monophyly of the large tribes Doryctini and Hecabolini, nor the monophyly of the Spathiini and Heterospilini. Relationships obtained from successive approximation weighting analysis for the complete data differ considerably from the currently accepted tribal and subtribal classifications. The only exceptions were the Ypsistocerini and the Ecphylini, whose recognized members were recovered in single clades. A close relationship between the Binaerini and Holcobraconini, and also Monarea, is consistently supported by venom apparatus and ovipositor structure characters but is not indicated by external morphological data. Low bootstrap values obtained for most of the recovered clades in all analyses do not allow us to propose a meaningful reclassification for the group at this time. A complete list of the recognized genera and their synonymies is given.

Taxonomic name: 
Acanthodoryctes (Doryctinae), Acanthorhogas (Doryctinae), Achterbergia (Doryctinae), Acrophasmus (Doryctinae), Afrospathius (Doryctinae), Aivalykus (Doryctinae), Allorhogas (Doryctinae), Amazondoryctes (Doryctinae), Antidoryctes (Doryctinae), Aphelopsia (Doryctinae), Aptenobracon (Doryctinae), Araucania (Doryctinae), Arhaconotus (Doryctinae), Asiaheterospilus (Doryctinae), Bathycentor (Doryctinae), Binarea (Doryctinae), Bohartiellus (Doryctinae), Bracodoryctes (Doryctinae), Bulbonervus (Doryctinae), Caenophanes (Doryctinae), Caingangia (Doryctinae), Callihormius (Doryctinae), Canchim (Doryctinae), Ceylonspathius (Doryctinae), Chelonodoryctes (Doryctinae), Coiba (Doryctinae), Cryptodoryctes (Doryctinae), Curtisella (Doryctinae), Cyphodoryctes (Doryctinae), Dendrosoter (Doryctinae), Dendrosotinus (Doryctinae), Dicarinoryctes (Doryctinae), Donquickeia (Doryctinae), Doryctes (Doryctinae), Doryctophasmus (Doryctinae), Ecphylopsis (Doryctinae), Ecphylus (Doryctinae), Embobracon (Doryctinae), Euscelinus (Doryctinae), Evaniodes (Doryctinae), Fijibracon (Doryctinae), Fritziella (Doryctinae), Glyptocolastes (Doryctinae), Guaygata (Doryctinae), Gymnobracon (Doryctinae), Halycaea (Doryctinae), Hecabolodes (Doryctinae), Hecabolus (Doryctinae), Heerz (Doryctinae), Hemidoryctes (Doryctinae), Hemispathius (Doryctinae), Heterospathius (Doryctinae), Heterospilus (Doryctinae), Histeromeroides (Doryctinae), Holcobracon (Doryctinae), Hybodoryctes (Doryctinae), Hypodoryctes (Doryctinae), Iare (Doryctinae), Ipodoryctes (Doryctinae), Ivondrovia (Doryctinae), Janzenia (Doryctinae), Jarra (Doryctinae), Jataiella (Doryctinae), Johnsonius (Doryctinae), Labania (Doryctinae), Leluthia (Doryctinae), Leptodoryctes (Doryctinae), Leptorhaconotus (Doryctinae), Leptospathius (Doryctinae), Liobracon (Doryctinae), Liodoryctes (Doryctinae), Masonius (Doryctinae), Megaloproctus (Doryctinae), Micrommatus (Doryctinae), Mimipodoryctes (Doryctinae), Mimodoryctes (Doryctinae), Monarea (Doryctinae), Monolexis (Doryctinae), Mononeuron (Doryctinae), Neodoryctes (Doryctinae), Nervellius (Doryctinae), Neurocrassus (Doryctinae), Nipponecphylus (Doryctinae), Notiospathius (Doryctinae), Odontobracon (Doryctinae), Odontodoryctes (Doryctinae), Ontsira (Doryctinae), Osmophila (Doryctinae), Pambolidea (Doryctinae), Paradoryctes (Doryctinae), Parallorhogas (Doryctinae), Parana (Doryctinae), Paraspathius (Doryctinae), Pareucorystes (Doryctinae), Pariodes (Doryctinae), Pedinotus (Doryctinae), Percnobracon (Doryctinae), Percnobraconoides (Doryctinae), Pioscelus (Doryctinae), Platydoryctes (Doryctinae), Platyspathius (Doryctinae), Polystenoides (Doryctinae), Polystenus (Doryctinae), Priosphys (Doryctinae), Psenobolus (Doryctinae), Pseudodoryctes (Doryctinae), Pseudorhoptrocentrus (Doryctinae), Ptesimogaster (Doryctinae), Ptesimogastroides (Doryctinae), Rhaconotus (Doryctinae), Rhacontsira (Doryctinae), Rhoptrocentrus (Doryctinae), Schlettereriella (Doryctinae), Semirhytus (Doryctinae), Sericobracon (Doryctinae), Sharkeyella (Doryctinae), Shawius (Doryctinae), Siragra (Doryctinae), Sisupala (Doryctinae), Sonanus (Doryctinae), Spathiomorpha (Doryctinae), Spathioplites (Doryctinae), Spathiospilus (Doryctinae), Spathiostenus (Doryctinae), Spathius (Doryctinae), Stenocorse (Doryctinae), Stephanospathius (Doryctinae), Subcurtisella (Doryctinae), Syngaster (Doryctinae), Synspilus (Doryctinae), Tarasco (Doryctinae), Terate (Doryctinae), Termitobracon (Doryctinae), Toka (Doryctinae), Termitospathius (Doryctinae), Trigonophasmus (Doryctinae), Tripteria (Doryctinae), Verae (Doryctinae), Waitaca (Doryctinae), Whartonius (Doryctinae), Whitfieldiellus (Doryctinae), Ypsistocerus (Doryctinae), Zombrus (Doryctinae)
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith